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 Pre-algebra Arithmetics Integers Divisibility Decimals Fractions Exponents Percentages Proportional reasoning Radical expressions Graphs Algebra Monomials Polynomials Factoring Linear Equations Graphs of linear equations Rectangular Coordinate System Midpoint Formula Definition of Slope Positive and negative slope Determine the slope of a line Equations of lines Equation of lines (from graph) Applications of linear equations Inequalities Quadratic equations Graphs of quadratic equations Absolute Value Radical expressions Exponential equations Logarithmic equations System of equations Graphs and functions Plotting points and naming quadrants Interpreting Graphs Relations and Functions Function Notation Writing a Linear Equation from a Table Writing a Linear Equation to describe a Graph Direct Variation Indirect Variation Domain and range Sequences and series Matrices Inverse of a matrix Determinants Inner product Geometry Triangles Polygons 2-D Shapes 3-D Shapes Areas Volume Pythagorean Theorem Angles Building Blocks Geometry Transformations Parallel, coincident and intersepting lines Distances in the plane Lines in space Plane in space Angles in the space Distances in the space Similarity Precalculus Sequences and series Graphs Graphs Definition of slope Positive or negative slope Determine the slope of a line Equation of a line (slope-intercept form) Equation of a line (point slope form) Equation of a line from graph Domain and range Quadratic function Limits (approaches a constant) Limits (approaches infinity) Asymptotes Continuity and discontinuities Parallel, coincident and intersepting lines Introduction to Functions Limits Continuity Asymptotes Trigonometry Trigonometric ratios The reciprocal trigonometric ratios Trigonometric ratios of related angles Trigonometric identities Solving right angles Law of sines Law of cosines Domain of trigonometric functions Statistics Mean Median Mode Quartiles Deciles Percentiles Mean deviation Variance Standard Deviation Coefficient of variation Skewness kurtosis Frequency distribution Graphing statistics & Data Factorial Variations without repetition Variations with repetition Permutations without repetition Permutation with repetition Circular permutation Binomial coefficient Combinations without repetition Combinations with repetition

Geometry Transformations
Transformations and Isometries
A transformation is a process which changes the position (and possibly the size and orientation) of a shape. There are four types of transformations: reflection, rotation, translation and enlargement.

Translation (also known as Slide) moves a shape by sliding it up, down, sideways or diagonally, without turning it or making it bigger or smaller.

Point A has been translated to A'' by moving 8 squared to the right and then 4 squares up. This translation is written as a vector $\fs2A=\left(\begin{matrix}8\\4\end{matrix}\right)$

Reflection (also known as Flip) in a line produces a mirror image in which corresponding points on the original shape and the mirror image are always the same distance from the mirror line.

Rotation (also known as Turn) turns a shape through a clockwise or anti-clockwise angle about a fixed point known as the Centre of Rotation. All lines in the shape rotate through the same angle. Rotation, (just like reflection) changes the orientation and position of the shape, but everything else stays the same.

Enlargement (also known as Dilation) is a transformation. However, it is different from reflection, rotation and translation because it changes the size of an object.

Some of these transformations on an object give a image whose dimensions are different from that of the object. Others produce an image whose dimensions are the same as those of the object. In other words the object and the image are invariant.

Transformations which leave the dimensions of the object and its image unchanged are called isometric transformations. Examples of isometrics are reflection, rotation and translation. Transformations which do alter the dimension of the object when they act on them are called non-isometric transformation Examples are the enlargement.